In a time capsule from the future that I stumbled across in my back yard, I found the following New York Times Book Review, dated September 11, 2101:
A History of World War Three, by Charles Pomegran, Harcourt Books, New York, 2101.
Review by Ferdinand Olmedo (professor emeritus of Islamic history, Cornell University).
In our time, as we round yet another fin du siècle -- this time of the 22nd century -- it might seem quaint to most readers to think in terms of a "problem of Islam". Yes, many of us (those who do not take history for granted) know the history of our grandfathers who bravely began the fight some three quarters of a century years ago and paved the way for the definitive solution to that hoary problem that, while it had sunk into abeyance by the 19th century through to the mid-20th century, reared its ugly head of yore over subsequent decades, punctutated by a climactic opening salvo upon the last turning of a century that stunned the West with grief and anger one hundred years ago to this day -- even if it took nearly a half century more, and a series of much worse attacks, for the West to rally intelligently to its self-defense.
And many of us are familiar with the unprecedented events following that war that led to that most just, most rational solution. But it is instructive to have our historical memories refreshed about the extraordinary century behind us -- a century that has become known by historians and by the culture at large as the Century of the New Reconquista; the century that finally put the Islamic tiger back into its cage. Most particularly so, concerning the collective state of historical amnesia the West suffered up to that momentous point, an amnesia about the menace of Islam that, in the opinion of Prof. Pomegran and others (including the writer of this review), was one major factor leading us on the inexorable rail toward that third world war in the first place. And it is a singular achievement of Prof. Pomegran's book that he explores and analyzes definitively that amnesia which constitutes the main texture of the pre-history to the war, and of course explains our perilous descent into a major Western civil war only barely averted.
Thus, the book's first chapter lays the ground for that pre-history. Prof. Pomegran cannot be faulted for giving rather short shrift to the long history that unfolded the mainstream dominance of Politically Correct Multi-Culturalism (PC MC) by the mid-20th century; for his previous magisterial study in three volumes (Western Paradigms) is the definitive history of that ideological deformation, which he traced back to the Protestant Reformation (with more amorphous roots going back as far as the classical Gnostic heresies during the formation of Patristic Christianity at the dawn of the early medieval period). It is sufficient for him, therefore, merely to summarize in approximately three pages that process, then with another five pages surveying the rise to mainstream dominance of PC MC in the latter half of the 20th century, as he gets to the main course: the U.S. Presidential victory of America's first black President, Barack Hussein Obama, a man who also, remarkably, had an orthodox Muslim childhood in a Muslim country (Indonesia) as well as Muslim relatives from a second father among Muslim jihadists in Kenya whose militant movement to install Sharia Law by military coup he himself had been on record as at least indirectly supporting -- not to mention that in his first campaign for the Presidency he had reiterated comments favorable to Muslims, while in his second term he had only ratcheted these up even higher; and all along had availed himself of direct support from certain Muslim-Americans of dubious backgrounds (often with Muslim Brotherhood connections and/or allegiances). That a man with such a background (furthermore prevaricated by Obama himself) had won such overwhelming support from millions of Americans only seven years after the attacks on New York City and Washington, D.C., of September 11, 2001 -- and then won a re-election for a second term -- testifies to the depth and breadth of the amnesia and nescience about the menace of Islam prevalent throughout America (not to mention the rest of the West).
Prof. Pomegran does a good job summarizing President Obama's three terms in office, from 2009 to 2020 -- winning a third term after an extraordinary session of Congress revoked the delimitation of Presidential terms, then supported by a U.S. Supreme Court decision, all precisely because of the second major terrorist attack on America, the "Oscars bombing" in Hollywood that occurred before the beginning of the nomination process toward the end of Obama's second term, on August 1, 2016 (which, of course, would acquire immense political ballast from the horrific suitcase nuke attack on Las Vegas less than three years later; see below). Not only were nearly 2,000 people killed (and over 1,000 injured) in the Hollywood attack, but more importantly for the American psyche perhaps, 157 celebrities died that day (ironically including many flaming Leftist stars who invariably defended Islam and Muslims during their career, when they could find time from their lucratively busy schedules to comment about it amid their other starry-eyed causes célèbres). Not only were Muslims involved, but the main mujahid ("martyr" or suicide bomber) was himself a nominee and a rising star, Shaheed Simcur, a Muslim-American actor originally from Pakistan. Although security was tighter than it ever had been before at the Oscars (since so many more acts of Islamic terrorism had ensued in the meantime), it was found out that they did not submit the Muslim actor to a cavity search, nor even a strip search, and that one of the Academy authorities had explicitly expressed the sentiment that she did not "want to insult our Muslim colleagues with indignities of bigoted suspicion".
Incredibly, in retrospect, the majority of the American people at that point remained in a sufficient cultural stupor to believe that Obama was their best vanguard against "terrorists" (particularly after his typically unctuous speech to the American people cleverly pursuing his balancing act between "taking a tough stand" and making sure to "respect our Muslim-Americans") to thus vote him in by a slim majority for that singular third term. One of the first things Obama did in the wake of the Hollywood bombing, unsurprisingly, was to deploy National Guard troops to quell nascent mobs who had not yet attacked any Muslims or damaged any Muslim property, but who had, at worst, only made vague threats to do so, and more often had actually done and said nothing to warrant such typical concern of a "backlash" against Muslims that never had materialized in the West following terror attacks by Muslims -- even the horrifically egregious ones of the Las Vegas and Hollywood bombings.
That third term, however, proved to be the beginning, finally, of the downfall of that cleverest of Presidents, when his pledge to "ensure with every fiber of my being the safety of the American people" began to unravel into the end of his third year, as Muslim atrocities on American soil began to multiply in a variety of gruesome and ghoulish ways -- including (but by no means exhausted by) the public beheadings (twelve in one day) inside the Houston Astrodome during the Superbowl and broadcasting it to the world, when at least three to four hundred Muslims commandeered the stadium (killing thirty-seven additional innocents in order to take control); the seemingly random (but afterward determined as coordinated) vehicular carnage on the Miami beltway, resulting in over 90 deaths (and actual footage of Muslims engaging in sodomy and cannibalism of some of the victims they pulled out of the cars); the suicide bombing of the Washington Monument in the nation's capital, killing nearly forty people and injuring nearly a hundred; a massacre of a Christian Coptic festival in Rochester, New York, killing seventeen and injuring over twenty; and in some senses the most shocking of all, the decimation of an entire medium-sized town in Iowa (324 dead, 27 seriously wounded, most of the town destroyed by explosives and arson) by a commando unit of Muslims wielding machine-guns, bombs and long knives (following the razzia tactic deployed years earlier in Mumbai, then in Nairobi).
Obama's infirm responses to these outrages, and the telling information uncovered by a (finally) conscientious mainstream press that his Homeland Security apparatus could have prevented these but for the PC MC directives by which he had impaired their ability ever since his first term, spelled the death knell of his popularity. The fourth term he had been angling for (as the "Black Roosevelt", a New Yorker article put it) seemed at that point a dim prospect. The late revelation, into the middle of his fourth year, of definitive evidence of his stack of lies about his personal and political biography, finally gaining traction in the mainstream media, was the nail in his coffin. He would not only exit ignominiously on an impeachment passed overwhelmingly by both House and Senate, but would end up in prison (albeit one in the Cayman Islands providing him with a golf course, his private yacht and seaplane, and luxury cabanas for his family; where guests to cheer up his spirits would include Will Smith, Oprah Winfrey, and an elderly Sidney Poitier and Harry Belafonte).
Meanwhile, these escalating assaults on American soil devolved in various veins that formed a pattern predisposing America -- and by extension the West -- toward an increasing and vertiginous approximation toward an all-out war on Islam; finally on the path toward galvanization on a rational course by the new President, who sensibly made the "problem of Islam" her number one priority, inducting Robert Spencer of Jihad Watch as her Anti-Islam Czar, Diana West as her Secretary of State, Hugh Fitzgerald the Poet Laureate, and a suitably rehabilitated Stephen Coughlin as her Secretary of Defense.
Although Prof. Pomegran does not go into lengthy detail about them, Europe and the UK, of course, were not spared this metastasis of Islamic violence. The plot to blow up the Royal Palace of Whitehall and behead the British royalty, including King Charles III, in 2017; the suicide bombings of Edinburgh and Liverpool the next year; the Muslim riots in Spain which claimed over 100 non-Muslim lives in 2019; the razzia on Barcelona in 2020 in which over three dozen men, women and children were slaughtered; the guerrilla attacks on the Vatican, which resulted in 73 deaths (and protracted rapes of some abductees) until it was put down by the Swiss Guard in 2023; the serial beheadings of supposed gay prostitutes in Amsterdam and Rotterdam in 2024; and the multiple train bombings in three German cities in 2025 (all this not even counting countless other smaller but no less savage instances of Muslim violence in various countries of Europe, including the sexual mutilation and torture of three seemingly random women by a gang of Muslims in broad daylight outside of Old Town Square in Prague, Czech Republic in 2018) -- all told, led to a revival of the type of Alliance with America belatedly mustered in the previous century by the great statesman Winston Churchill.
This Alliance, without perhaps fully realizing it, led to collective political acts and policies that almost immediately dismantled PC MC brick by brick -- if only because that was the logical consequence of the unanimously recognized need simply to survive on a brutely pragmatic level: to defend society from Muslims, and to fight in solidarity against an evil threat of global megalomaniacal proportions reminiscent of, if not worse than, what Churchill and others had labored to unite the West against a century before (the so-called "Axis powers" of Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy, and Imperialist Japan), resulting in the third of world wars (or fourth, if one, as some historians do, counts the Cold War as number three).
Thus, this Third World War broke out only three months into the first term of the following President, America's first female President, Chelsea Clinton (who barely won against Republican and so-called "far-right" Christian candidate Ralph Reed, only because she convincingly persuaded the American people that she was going to be tougher on the problem of Muslims spiralling out of control). The many conservative Americans who were skeptical of this Clinton brood were quickly disabused of their misgivings when in speech after speech she revealed how deeply right-wing she had become (perhaps in a visceral psychic reaction against her flamingly Leftist parents) -- and in one interview with Larry King (amazingly still alive at that point), she even promised, if elected, to bring her mother and father to trial for crimes against the state!
This 44th President of the United States of America -- daughter of the woman who had tried, unsuccessfully, to win the nomination against Obama for his first run (Hillary Clinton, herself wife of William Clinton, President for two terms ending before the "911" attacks), before becoming his Secretary of State for his first term and partway into his second term -- almost immediately proved all the pundits and detractors wrong who considered her too inexperienced, too soft, and too beholden to a family culture of Leftism at which the American people were becoming angry and impatient in the face of the growing Islamic menace, when during her competition for the nomination of her party, she made a series of stump speeches that, for the first time in decades, and the only time since the 911 attacks, called a spade a spade.
"It's time to stop walking on eggshells and tiptoeing around the problem: The problem is Islam and all Muslims who follow Islam," were among many similarly memorable words of no nonsense which also proved her anxious advisors and campaign manager dead wrong: the American people erupted in praise and support for her, showing they had been thirsting and hungering for a politician to say these words they had been too often afraid to say even to their own neighbors or friends or family. A "Million Man March Against Muslims" happened almost by spontaneous combustion, coinciding with her election by a landslide -- and she was cheered and rained on with confetti when she made an appearance at the March not only to lend her moral and intellectual support, but to make good on her promise to provide National Guard troops to protect the marchers.
"I will protect your right to show your basic human outrage," she had said, on ascending the podium for a seemingly impromptu speech that became historic and is still taught in school textbooks. "Some of my colleagues worry about a 'backlash' against Muslims," she said to the crowd exceeding one million, standing before the Washington Monument (that only two weeks prior had finally been restored after the terror attack on it two years before), then took a pregnant pause to look out over the crowd on that lovely clear Spring day on the Washington Mall, before marshalling the fire in her blue eyes to conclude, to an ecstatic outburst of praise, thumping of extemporaneous drums, and squealing of vuvuzuelas:
"We ARE the backlash!"
Many still think that war could have been avoided, if not managed more judiciously, with a different approach during the following sixteen years of combined double terms by President Clinton and her successor, her Vice-President, then President Allen West (another sign of her remarkable political acumen, to take on as her running mate a Republican and a fiercely intelligent critic of Islam for years), but all wars have their critics, at the time as well as from the advantage conferred by the Armchair of 20/20 Hindsight. President Clinton's invocation of Martial Law by the bipartisan Extraordinary Commission on Emergency Law convened with cooperation of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and given license by an urgent session of the Supreme Court, for example, has been seen as unnecessary and setting a dangerous precedent for Constitutional law. Prof. Pomegran argues persuasively however that not only was the emergency of proportions justifying such a measure, but also the American people were, for the most part, solidly, soberly and enthusiastically behind it, trusting their President to use it against the actual threat -- Muslims -- and not against non-Muslim American citizens (unless aiding and abetting the enemy).
Prof. Pomegran's assessment of the years of Bush ineptitude and worse under Obama is a shade more fatalistic -- even than that of this writer -- essentially seeing in those Administrations, particularly the one under the Obama Presidency, as the tragicomic catalyst necessary to break the entrenched dominance of irrationality under Politically Correct Multi-Culturalism. In explaining further the catastrophic failure of the Obama Presidency, Prof. Pomegran outlines the assiduously wrongheaded choices by President Obama leading to that state of no return that paved the way for the "recovery of Western Reason". The first was the disastrous selection of the atrociously deformed Noam Chomsky to head the Second Commission on 911 -- a Congressional investigation invested with the task of definitively convincing those putative millions of Americans who continued to doubt the official explanation and thereby to "heal the national scar": For, it turned out that Chomsky was not even neutral about that task, but was a "Truther" himself (no surprise there) and tried to steer the investigation toward the conclusion that a cabal of government and business elites (defined as such along brazenly partisan lines), including former President George W. Bush and his Vice-President Dick Cheney, plotted and implemented the attacks of 911, using CIA-trained Muslims as the agents and "fall guys" for the purpose. When this bias became clear, within the second month of that Commission, the sociopolitical fallout from around U.S.A. was amazingly unforeseen (at least to those who tended to discount the degree and prevalence of patriotism and pride -- not to mention common sense -- among American citizens): voters turned out in unprecedented numbers to defeat every Democratic candidate for the State, House and Gubernatorial elections in the middle of President Obama's third term; meanwhile the pressure put on the Administration indirectly from the electorate through the Congress resulted in the firing of Commissar Chomsky and the dismantling of the Second 911 Commission -- capped by the President's attempt to rescind the insult he had added to injury by apologizing to the Nation in a "Fireside Internet Chat". The resentment throughout the country, however, remained, at an ominously higher boil than heretofore.
President Obama's second mistake into his third term was more complex, both in time and in space, partially preceding the aforementioned miscalculation. A mere month before he assumed office, Israel had effectively disabled Iran's nuclear capabilities through a lightning-fast series of surgical air strikes. This of course aggravated the bellicose threats by the Iranian government which it had been making for years, and considerably ratcheted up the already electrically charged atmosphere of belligerent resentment throughout the Muslim world. President Obama's decision to fly immediately, within his first week of inauguration, to Tehran and sit down with the leaders there was, predictably, hailed by the mainstream media as a "fresh, innovative, and healing" modus operandi -- but there was widespread grumbling about this, and it only increased with the miserable failure of the aforementioned 911 Commission a month later. Six months after that, the worst suicide bombing in Israel's history struck -- a coordinated "martyrdom" action of 17 different suicide attacks, resulting in at least 4,500 deaths and over 12,000 injuries, and major damage of key infrastructure -- which also constituted, at that point in time, the worst terrorist attack in history. The hand of Iran in that attack could not be dissembled and disguised for long -- notwithstanding the assiduous efforts in this regard by the O.I.C. (Organization of Islamic Conference, comprising all 53 Muslim countries) and by the newly elected Secretary-General of the United Nations, himself a Muslim from Sudan. Obama's attempts, some say clever, to pursue a "just and fair investigation that will leave no stone unturned" were seen by many as facilitating it with one hand while behind the scenes putting up roadblocks to any significant leads that would point blame at Iran, Syria, Egypt or any other Muslim country -- for it was clear that, if Iran was involved in any way, this would effectively destroy his geopolitical policy of face-to-face and "respectful but firm" discussions with Islamic heads of state, chief among whom had been the Iranian leadership. President Obama himself more or less conceded that he was "buffering" the investigation, out of "respect" for another "sovereign nation" (i.e., Iran) -- this reflective of his larger policy which he had promised during his campaign, of "sitting down with" Muslim leaders, even those who were bellicose; with the implication that he would even seek dialogue with Islamic terrorists (which in fact did occur, only later).
Two more years followed without any major terrorist attacks in the world (other than the usual bouts of violence endemic wherever Muslims were in large numbers, including two separate instances of kidnapping and torture, one in Belgium, one in Alberta, Canada; a shocking beheading of a barrister in London; an actual stoning -- to death -- of a woman in Philadelphia by a mob of Muslims; and 27 deaths total resulting from mass riots by Muslims in Paris and Hamburg). Among the remarkable, albeit relatively minor, events during that last year before war broke out which Prof. Pomegran has investigated in his scrupulous fashion and documented for posterity are included: the shock that thousands of formerly pro-Islamist members of the rather motley and loosely organized A.F.P. (Anarchists For Peace) experienced when they were rounded up to be slaughtered (over two hundred of them put to death) by the Muslim jihadists who had tried to take control of the State of Michigan in the U.S.A. -- their "crime" being their indulgence in the very same "rap" music they had been encouraged to create and perform in support of the very same Muslims!
Meanwhile, into the final year of his first term, President Obama lent the considerable power and influence of the Republic over which he presided to an international effort that had already been coalescing (most especially in Europe) for nearly half a century -- namely, the effort by the aforementioned O.I.C. to slowly but surely lay down the intricate roots and vines of international law by which to gain a stranglehold over freedom of expression whenever that expression was perceived to be critical or pejorative of Islam. He did this by offering to convene an international body to discuss and possibly adjudicate this issue, inviting those notorious American Islamic organizations, C.A.I.R., the I.C.N.A. and the M.A.S. -- an offer which all Muslims concerned naturally accepted with pleasure. Other major figures of dubious merits were also invited, including pseudo-moderate Muslims such as Sheikhs Qaradawi and Tantawi of Egypt, Maajid Nawaz of the Quilliam Foundation in London, and Muslim ideologue Tariq Ramadan (whose restrictions to enter the U.S. President Obama personally lifted previously as part of a "general amnesty" on virtually all Muslims who had been designated as having ties to terrorist associations) -- along with Islam apologists Karen Armstrong and John Esposito. The results of that three-month-long session were not immediately effective. However, anti-Islamic specialist Robert Spencer (who later, in the years immediately following the third world war, finally recognized for his important expertise, played a key role in the International Conference on the Problem of Islam) and others documented the suicidal stillicide of most countries of the West in the small, but insidious, steps they took to comply with the spirit of that session over the four years of President Obama's second term -- resulting in real legal penalties for various writers, bloggers, artists, publishers, editors, organizations, and individuals in fifteen different countries, including two in the United States and three in Canada.
Most conventionally notable was President Obama's reluctance to end the American war in Nigeria (begun at the start of his third term and framed, of course, as a war to "restore civil order" without any reference to the endemic cause of the strife and bloodshed in that region: Muslims) -- a reluctance that increasingly aroused accusations of his infidelity to his campaign promises, or accusations of "flip-flopping" on the issue. In his third year of his third term, however, he finally did make good on those promises, when all but a peace-keeping contingent of less than half a thousand men had returned home.
One would have thought, Prof. Pomegran notes wryly, that after all the efforts over the years during which Obama and most Western leaders had been bending over backwards to placate Muslims around the world (when they were not salaaming forward), that terrorism would have been drastically reduced, if only because Muslims would have grown increasingly grateful for the brownnosing kowtowing shown them. What a surprise, then -- to those whose minds were ever formed by the paradigm that assumed that Islamic terrorists only struck when they had understandable "grievances" and felt "oppressed" or "attacked" -- when in that third year of President Obama's third term, after years of "respectful dialogue" and concessions and appeasement of Islamists by his Administration, on August 23, 2019, Las Vegas, Nevada, was struck by that device that had been dreaded by too few and which, up to that point, had never been used: the infamous "suitcase nuke" of Hollywood movies and spy thrillers. This was a portable nuclear device relatively easy to smuggle, camouflage and deploy because of its portable size and by that point developed with a capacity for a nuclear explosive almost twice as powerful as the ones that had destroyed much of the Japanese cities Hiroshima and Nagasaki at the close of the Second World War. Over 5,000 Americans and tourists from around the world were massacred in that attack, marking it as now the worst terror attack (taking that horrific title from the recently previous attacks on Israel). Thousands more were wounded and diseased with radiation, along with devastating destruction of infrastructure and the effective ruination of the iconic city.
The immediate sociopolitical fallout of this horrific attack included unremarkable and expected public statements trotted out by Muslim associations that for years had been in the business of pretending to oppose Islamic terrorism, decrying the attack on Las Vegas and reiterating their claims, about which Western people had by that time grown increasingly weary (if not disgusted) in greater and greater numbers, that such an attack "has nothing to do with Islam", which "does not believe in terrorism" nor in killing "innocent people"; and so forth and yadda-yadda sim-sim sala-bim. (Additionally, expected intimations among various Leftists of a "conspiracy" came out of the woodwork -- a conspiracy, apparently, this time not involving the President, their sainted hero, Barack Hussein Obama.)
What was more remarkable and less expected were numerous public demonstrations by Muslims of celebration -- this time not merely in hot spots in the Middle East (as happened 14 years earlier after the attacks of September 11, 2001) but several throughout the West, in the United States, as well as in Canada, Australia, the UK, France, Italy, Germany, Sweden, Holland, Denmark, Serbia, Russia. Historians have puzzled over the questions: Why did so many Muslims in so many places reveal their hand so eagerly? Why did they not try to present a unified pretense that they were against the attacks and on our side, as they had been doing, for the most part, up until that point? Prof. Pomegran's theory seems plausible, and he provides copious evidence to back it up: It was not, as some have argued, merely the common-sensical conclusion that the Muslim world was "diverse" and so would evince various responses. This conclusion, indeed, was maintained with stubborn tenacity by those opposing World War 3, for they feared not only the victimization of putatively innocent and harmless Muslims throughout the West, but also fretted that such a general conflict would "radicalize" those untold millions (never bothering to ponder, of course, how such supposedly moderate Muslims would be so amenable to "radicalize" in the first place). Events unfolded rather swiftly in the following year or two which sufficiently tipped the balance in the general Western understanding of Islam and of Muslims so as to marginalize and override those opponents of war. Prof. Pomegran, among others, sees the two years, 2019-2020, as pivotal in the process of the general dismantling of what has become termed by historians the "Politically Correct Multi-Culturalist Paradigm" (a term first coined for this context by an obscure and otherwise unknown blogger who went by the name "Hesperado" in the early years of the 21st century).
Prof. Pomegran has here collocated not only the evidence from the I.C.P.O.I. (the International Conference on the Problem of Islam that followed directly on the heels of WWIII), but also numerous other documents heretofore either uncollected or even, in some cases, unnoticed, that show, with little arguable doubt, that there was a concerted, conscious, trans-national program of jihad using both non-violent subterfuge and sabotage as well as violent terrorism with the express design of eliciting a war against Islam by the West which would then serve to rally and unify the Muslim world to counter it successfully.
The successful end of that famous Third World War, and the civilizational order that reconfigured and settled in its wake included a "Nuremberg 2" to prosecute various Westerners charged with enabling the enemy; a "New Inquisition" to ferret out Muslim spies pretending to be non-Muslims or ex-Muslims; and, most notably and monumentally, the rounding up and deportation of all Muslims from the West to be deposited in the Dar-al-Islam (whose borders were redefined after the Post-War International Conference in Washington a year after the war). These events, however, are subjects for other books, which have been written by other able historians (including Prof. Ann-Marie Stroughton of Oxford), though of course Prof. Pomegran's book touches on them.
At any rate, these last two or three decades have afforded the West, and the Rest of the world, unprecedented opportunities to get on with their lives and progress unimpeded by the horrors of Islam that had plagued them for so many centuries prior, and Islam and its Muslims -- safely quarantined to prevent their geopolitical disease from disturbing the free world -- are now the subjects only of historians, anthropologists and archeologists.
War begins 2020, lasts 10 years: 2020-2030.
Post-War International Conference: 2031-2032.
1) Temporary Internment of Muslims: 2022-2032
2) Mass Deportation of Muslims: 2032-2033
a) involving continual measures to ferret out Muslims -- a "new Inquisition"
3) Setting up the "Iron Veil": 2033-2036 -- international cooperation to cordon off Muslims in the Dar-al-Islam
4) Measures to indefinitely institutionalize and maintain the "new Inquisition" (making sure to identify and inoculate the reappearance of the pneumpathology of Islam in society)